In the last two decades, electricity grids face many issues that they were not designed to handle. The demand has increased worldwide and massive power outages are likely to become more probable with the increasing age and load of power infrastructures, with the decentralization of the electricity generation, with the complexity of the power system operation. Thus, environment-friendly development, higher reliability and better security are the main expectations by the stake-holders, actors and users of the electrical system.


Modeling the complexity of electrical system has become necessary to understand how Smart Grids properties emerge from their complex organization and to design resilient and agile architectures for the optimization of Smart Grids operations.
Smart Grids are not engineered from ground-up. They result from the incremental transformation of current power systems into smart electrical systems, by the connection of new subsystems or devices. The proposal of a framework for standardization is therefore a crucial issue to ensure that an efficient and interoperable Smart Grid is achieved by the transformation process.



We propose to use fractality as a core concept to model, analyze and design future Smart Grids. We will develop new analysis tools and design concepts based on fractal geometry to improve both the control of highly distributed loads and generators in power systems and the resilience of the future grid. This will lead to a new architecture of Smart Grids.
We will show how the self-similar topology can benefit to the electrical system, from consumers to utilities.


The long-term goal of the Fractal Grid methodology is to provide a framework for the development of international standards for Smart Grid technologies and to facilitate the multi-scale deployment of Smart Grids. For this purpose, it will consider aspects ranging from weather systems and market organization down to communication and electrical networks with a particular attention paid to the latter aspect.

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FractalGrid’s objectives are to analyze the geometry and performances of current electrical systems and to propose new designs of networks based on fractality.
Multiscale analysis
of current power grids
Links between electrical variables, grid dynamics, resilience and topological parameters of the grid.
Links between spatial organization of built-up spaces and to- pology of distribution grids.
of a Fractal Grids
Fractal topologies that take into account by design the multilayered and highly distributed nature of electrical systems.
Control architecture of the fractal grid to cope with the flexibility at all levels (generation, transmission, distribution, end users).
Methodological and simulation framework to approach the other aspects that appear and influence the power system operation at different scales (weather conditions, electricity market).
and communication



Project publications: click on the icon to download the released files.

Challenges, innovative architectures and control strategies for future networks: the Web-of-Cells, fractal grids and other concepts | CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, 12-15 June 2017


Fractal Grid - towards the future smart grid | CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, 12-15 June 2017


Analyzing the fractal behaviour of the distribution power grid in the city of Grenoble - France | CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, 3-6 June 2019


Spectral graph analysis of the geometry of power flows in transmission networks | Accepted paper in IEEE Systems Journal. DOI:10.1109/


Spectral analysis of load flow equations for transmission networks | Published in Engineering Research Express, Sep. 2019.


Comparing fractal indices of electric networks to roads and buildings: The case of Grenoble (France) | Published in
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Oct. 2019,


Four academic labs (G2Elab, ARMINES, LMI and ThéMA) are in charge of the research development. The project is funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR-15-CE05-007-01).


The project concerns all the industrial actors ranging from the regulator, the TSO, DSO, utilities, electrical systems and devices suppliers, major corporate customers. Some representatives of these actors are gathered in an Advisory Board to benefit from their strategic advice and their experience in designing, engineering, managing and operating the electrical system.

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